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The Structure of The Human Brain

Other+than+the+tree+what+do+you+see+in+the+picture%3F+Perception+is+one+of+the+brain%27s+many+functions.
Other than the tree what do you see in the picture? Perception is one of the brain's many functions.

Other than the tree what do you see in the picture? Perception is one of the brain's many functions.

Other than the tree what do you see in the picture? Perception is one of the brain's many functions.

by Carnell Lyon, Staff Writer

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The human brain is one, if not, the most complicated organ in the human body, responsible for all the human body’s functions ranging from motor skills (standing, arm movement, etc.), thought, and plain living.

Neurology is the study of the human brain and its responsibility for all the different processes that take place in our body. Because of the topic’s complexity, I will be giving a basic explanation of the brain’s components and their functions.

The first questions we will be answering are: how the brain coordinates all the different functions that take place in our day-to-day lives and how these “orders” are communicated. The answer being the nervous system. Through our bodies runs a long, organic highway of cells and organs specifically wired for brain to body communication; the two main cells that compose the nervous system being glial cells and neurons. Glial cells are more like the “guard rails” of the system, by which I mean they give the system its structure. They are also responsible for waste removal, nourishing neurons, and insulating the neurons. Now, the neurons are the “roads” themselves along which information travels and is received and communicated in the form of electrochemical reactions.

Despite its complexity, neurologists have incredibly divided the brain into three parts: the brainstem, the cerebellum and the cerebrum. The cerebrum is further divided into subsections: the parietal, temporal, occipital and frontal lobes.

First, let’s focus on the cerebrum–the main meat of it all. The brain has distinct fissures that divide the cerebrum into the lobes which I stated earlier and each lobe has a general function, and are all connected by complex connections throughout the brain. The frontal lobe is the general center of intelligence and cognition, language, personality, body movement, judgement, planning, and problem solving–this is the smart part. The fastest way to become a dingus is have severe damage to this area, which is why head protection especially in the front, is prioritized. The parietal lobe is responsible for interpreting language and words, processing visuo-spatial information and sensory signals. Navigating, differentiating a square from a circle (which is a shame if you can’t), feelings of pain, etc. are all here. The occipital lobe is mainly for vision; it reprocesses the RGB wavelengths that our eyes take in and turn them into a recognizable picture instead of colorful gobbly-gook. And finally the temporal lobe, responsible for understanding language, memory, hearing, and sequencing (pattern recognition).

The cerebellum coordinates muscle movement and maintains balance and posture. The cerebellum gives insight into the brain’s connectivity. Nearly the exact same processes are managed by the motor strip located in the frontal lobe: muscle coordination, motor coordination.

The final piece is the brainstem, and as the name suggests, it acts as a connector, more specifically, between the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Its job is managing the involuntary and automatic functions of the human body: breathing, heart beat, digestion, coughing, sneezing, in other words the stuff that can be hard to control.

As I said before, this is a basic explanation of the brain’s functions and its components. The information given here barely scratches the surface: why are we conscious, why do we laugh (wow…really?); these are some of the questions being asked by neurologists everywhere and hopefully some day we will come to fully understand the miracle that is the human brain.

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The student news site of McEachern High School in Powder Springs, Georgia
The Structure of The Human Brain